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List of Title Abbreviations (in alphabetical order)

TG Ymir (Scand.). The personified matter of our globe in a seething condition. The cosmic monster in the form of a giant, who is killed in the cosmogonical allegories of the Eddas by the three creators, the sons of Bor, Odin, Wili and We, who are said to have conquered Yimir and created the world out of his body. This allegory shows the three principal forces of nature -- separation, formation and growth (or evolution) -- conquering the unruly, raging "giant" matter, and forcing it to become a world, or an inhabited globe. It is curious that an ancient, primitive and uncultured pagan people, so philosophical and scientifically correct in their views about the origin and formation of the earth, should, in order to be regarded as civilized, have to accept the dogma that the world was created out of nothing!

MO Ymer [[Norse]] (ee-mer) [frost giant] Orgalmer

SD INDEX Ymir (Norse). See also Giant, Skrymir

Ases create world fr body of II 97, 99
formed fr first creation I 427
Heavenly Man or I 367
Orgelmir or I 427

SD INDEX Yo (Jap) male aethereal principle, heavens or I 216-17, 241

TG Yod (Heb.). The tenth letter of the alphabet, the first in the fourfold symbol of the compound name Jah-hovah (Jehovah) or Jah-Eve, the hermaphrodite force and existence in nature. Without the later vowels, the word Jehovah is written IHVH (the letter Yod standing for all the three English letters y, i, or j, as the case may require), and is male-female. The letter Yod is the symbol of the lingham, or male organ, in its natural triple form, as the Kabalah shows. The second letter He, has for its symbol the yoni, the womb or "window-opening", as the Kabalah has it; the symbol of the third letter, the Vau, is a crook or a nail (the bishop's crook having its origin in this), another male letter, and the fourth is the same as the second -- the whole meaning to be or to exist under one of these forms or both. Thus the word or name is pre-eminently phallic. It is that of the fighting god of the Jews, "Lord of Hosts"; of the "aggressive Yod" or Zodh, Cain (by permutation), who slew his female brother, Abel, and spilt his (her) blood. This name, selected out of many by the early Christian writers, was an unfortunate one for their religion on account of its associations and original significance; it is a number at best, an organ in reality. This letter Yod has passed into God and Gott.

SD INDEX Yod, Yodh (Heb, Jod in tx) letter "i" I 60; II 40

Adam symbolized as II 129, 468
forefinger symbolizes II 126n
God of Saxons fr I 347
Heh &, make Binah II 85
-He, Jehovah personates as II 509
holy, within ark II 518
later than elohim symbols II 473-4
letter of Kether is I 438n
membrum virile II 125, 460, 467, 574
perfect letter II 551, 603
phallic hook I 347; II 574
phallus II 473
serpent preferable to II 246n
ten or perfect number I 347, 392, 394; II 39, 551, 574, 603

SD INDEX Yodcheva [Yod-havvah] (Heb)

Jehovah or II 127-9
leads prajapatis, sephiroth II 129
offspring of Adam Kadmon II 127

TG Yoga (Sk.). (1) One of the six Darshanas or schools of India; a school of philosophy founded by Patanjali, though the real Yoga doctrine, the one that is said to have helped to prepare the world for the preaching of Buddha, is attributed with good reasons to the more ancient sage Yajnawalkya, the writer of the Shatapatha Brahmana, of Yajur Veda, the Brihad Aranyaka, and other famous works. (2) The practice of meditation as a means of leading to spiritual liberation. Psycho-spiritual powers are obtained thereby, and induced ecstatic states lead to the clear and correct perception of the eternal truths, in both the visible and invisible universe.

KT Yoga (Sans.) A school of philosophy founded by Patanjali, but which existed as a distinct teaching and system of life long before that sage. It is Yajnawalkya, a famous and very ancient sage, to whom the White Yajur Veda, the Satapatha Brahmana and the Brihak Aranyaka are attributed and who lived in pre-Maha-bharatean times, who is credited with inculcating the necessity and positive duty of religious meditation and retirement into the forests, and who, therefore, is believed to have originated the Yoga doctrine. Professor Max Muller states that it is Yajnawalkya who prepared the world for the preaching of Buddha. Patanjali's Yoga, however, is more definite and precise as a philosophy, and embodies more of the occult sciences than any of the works attributed to Yajnawalkya.

WG Yoga, the second of the two divisions of the Sankhya philosophy, teaching the means of attaining complete union with the Supreme. Eight stages or means of yoga, mental concentration and union with Isvara, are enumerated, viz: yama, forbearance, freedom from cruelty; niyama, restraint, religious observances; asana, bodily postures; pranayama, regulation of the breath; pratyahara, full control of thoughts and feelings; dharana, steadying of the mind; dhyana, contemplation; samadhi, perfect meditation, the highest of mystic trances. To the system of mental and ethical training the term raja-yoga, "kingly union," is applied, while physical and psychic practices in the line of black magic and spiritualism are called hatha-yoga, violent control. (yoga, yoking, union.)

OG Yoga -- (Sanskrit) Literally "union," "conjunction," etc. In India it is the technical name for one of the six Darsanas or schools of philosophy, and its foundation is ascribed to the sage Patanjali. The name Yoga itself describes the objective of this school, the attaining of union or at-one-ness with the divine-spiritual essence within a man. The yoga practices when properly understood through the instructions of genuine teachers -- who, by the way, never announce themselves as public lecturers or through books or advertisements -- are supposed to induce certain ecstatic states leading to a clear perception of universal truths, and the highest of these states is called samadhi. There are a number of minor forms of yoga practice and training such as the karma yoga, hatha yoga, bhakti yoga, raja yoga, jnana yoga, etc. Similar religious aspirations or practices likewise exist in Occidental countries, as, for instance, what is called salvation by works, somewhat equivalent to the Hindu karma yoga or, again, salvation by faith -- or love, somewhat similar to the Hindu bhakti yoga; while both Orient and Occident have, each one, its various forms of ascetic practices which may be grouped under the term hatha yoga. No system of yoga should ever be practiced unless under the direct teaching of one who knows the dangers of meddling with the psychomental apparatus of the human constitution, for dangers lurk at every step, and the meddler in these things is likely to bring disaster upon himself, both in matters of health and as regards sane mental equilibrium. The higher branches of yoga, however, such as the raja yoga and jnana yoga, implying strict spiritual and intellectual discipline combined with a fervid love for all beings, are perfectly safe. It is, however, the ascetic practices, etc., and the teachings that go with them, wherein lies the danger to the unwary, and they should be carefully avoided.

GH Yoga The word literally means a union, a joining together. It is the name of one of the six Schools of Philosophy or systems of Hindu thought (Darsanas), being so called because it sought the attainment of union or at-one-ness with the divine-spiritual essence within a man, this being virtually identical with the spiritual essence or Logos of the universe. This school was founded by Patanjali and his teachings are extant in a work written by him known as Yoga Aphorisms. However, even before his time a far grander and more inclusive system had been inculcated for ages, an ancient sage, Yajnavalkya, having outlined the same tenets. There are many systems based on Yoga, all derivative from the original system and hence all using the name yoga, thus: Jnana-Yoga, Raja-Yoga, Bhakti-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, etc. Each of these stresses one particular aspect of the teaching. The Bhagavad-Gita itself is a text-book of the highest system of Yoga. (The following word is derived from the verbal root:) yuj, to join, to yoke. Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 15)

SKo Yoga, Yogin A Yogin is a devotee who undergoes a certain form of discipline in order to attain Yoga or self-conscious union with his Higher Self. Yoga is derived from the verb-root yuj -- to unite. just as there are many methods of attaining spiritual enlightenment, so are there many kinds of Yoga-training.

SKs Hatha-Yoga, Bhakti-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, Raja-Yoga, Jnana-Yoga, Brahma-Yoga In India there are many schools of Yoga, each with its own type of discipline. Yoga is 'Union with the Divinity within'; derived from the verbal root yuj -- to unite. Hatha-Yoga is that system of discipline which trains the lower psychical and physical nature of man. Hatha means 'violence,' 'force,' derived from the verb-root hath -- to oppress. Hatha-Yoga is in the end a slow, indirect, and dangerous way of attaining mental quietude. Results of this training are only temporary and lead to serious physical disease if the higher types of Yoga are not practised at the same time. What Hatha-Yoga accomplishes at great risk, the higher types of Yoga training bring about in a safer, quicker, more direct and lasting manner. Bhakti-Yoga is that discipline that comes through devotion and trust and love. Bhakti means 'devotion,' derived from the verb-root bhaj -- to trust and love. Karma-Yoga is the discipline of work and unselfish service. Karma means 'action,' derived from the verb-root kri -- to act, to do. Raja-Yoga is 'Royal Union,' or that self-directed discipline that the Rajans or kings and leaders of Ancient India underwent in order to become true spiritual guides of their peoples. Jnana-Yoga is that union attained by wisdom, by a study and understanding and application of the knowledge of the ages. Brahma-Yoga is 'Divine Union.' This discipline includes the best and purest practices of all the schools of Yoga. It is truly that highest law of conduct taught all down the ages by spiritual teachers. It is that Theosophical discipline or training in chelaship given in the Esoteric Schools of the Ages, the Mystery-Schools. Brahma means 'divinity'; derived from the verb-root brih -- to expand.

SP Yoga -- union with spiritual reality or a discipline by which such union is attained. There are many types of yoga in the second sense, including:

jnana-yoga -- discipline through knowledge
karma-yoga -- discipline through action
bhakti-yoga -- discipline through devotion
hatha-yoga -- physical discipline through ascetic exercises
raja-yoga -- the "royal" discipline
brahma-yoga -- the "divine" discipline.

In the yoga system of Patanjali there are eight stages of discipline:

1. yama -- restraint
2. niyama -- religious observance
3. asana -- posture
4. pranayama -- breath control
5. pratyahara -- withdrawal from the senses
6. dharana -- attention
7. dhyana -- contemplation
8. samadhi -- concentration or oneness.

SD INDEX Yoga (Skt) I 47n; II 176, 371n

described II 115
hatha, discouraged I 95
-powers of Taraka, story of II 382 &n
powers, senses barrier to II 296
propagation by II 183
regulation of breath in I 95-6
Sons of II 109, 198
Sons of Passive I 207; II 165-6
Sons of Will & II 172-3, 181, 199, 220, 275, 281n, 319, 394n
supreme wisdom of, freed soul I 132


WG Yoga-bala, the force of devotion; the power of magic.

TG Yogacharya (Sk.). (1) A mystic school. (2) Lit., a teacher (acharya) of Yoga, one who has mastered the doctrines and practices of ecstatic meditation -- the culmination of which are the Mahasiddhis. It is incorrect to confuse this school with the Tantra, or Mahatantra school founded by Samantabhadra, for there are two Yogacharya Schools, one esoteric, the other popular. The doctrines of the latter were compiled and glossed by Asamgha in the sixth century of our era, and his mystic tantras and mantras, his formularies, litanies, spells and mudras, would certainly, if attempted without a Guru, serve rather purposes of sorcery and black magic than real Yoga. Those who undertake to write upon the subject are generally learned missionaries and haters of Eastern philosophy in general. From these no unbiased views call be expected. Thus when we read in the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary of Eitel, that the reciting of mantras (which he calls "spells"!) "should be accompanied by music and distortions of the fingers (mudra) that a state of mental fixity (Samadhi) might be reached" -- one acquainted, however slightly, with the real practice of Yoga can only shrug his shoulders. These distortions of the fingers or mudra are necessary, the author thinks, for the reaching of Samadhi, "characterized by there being neither thought nor annihilation of thought, and consisting of six-fold bodily (sic) and mental happiness (yogi) whence would result endowment with supernatural miracle-working power". Theosophists cannot be too much warned against such fantastic and prejudiced explanations.

WG Yogacharya, a teacher of magic; a teacher of the yoga philosophy. (yoga, philosophy; acharya, teacher.)

SKv Yogacharya, Aryasangha The Yogacharya School was originally a school of pure Buddhism founded by the first Aryasangha, an Arhat and a direct disciple of Gautama the Buddha, of the 6th century B.C. The teachings of this school were very spiritual and were identical with the esoteric wisdom. The second Aryasangha of the 6th century A.D. taught ritualistic Tantra worship of an inferior order, and has often been confused with the first Aryasangha. This later school, also known as the Yogacharya, is not of a spiritual type, but tends rather to forms of black magic and undesirable Tantric practices. Yogacharya is a compound of Yoga -- spiritual union, and acharya -- teacher. Aryasangha is a compound of arya -- worthy, holy, and sangha -- assemblage, host.

SD INDEX Yogacharya (-chara) School

Alaya personifies voidness in I 48
Aryasanga of II 637
made paranirvana esoteric I 42-3
Madhyamika vs, re paramartha I 44n, 48
"Vedantins in disguise" II 637

SD INDEX Yoga Shastra [Yoga-Sastra] (Skt) yogis & pranidhana in II 88

SD INDEX Yoga-siddha (Skt), Visvakarma son of II 559

FY Yoga Sutras, a treatise on Yoga philosophy by Patanjali.

FY Yog Vidya, the science of Yoga; the practical method of uniting one's own spirit with the universal spirit.

WG Yoga-vidya, knowledge of yoga, divine knowledge.

SD INDEX Yogel, Rabbi, 1065 explains kosmos I 90n

TG Yogi (Sk.). (1) Not "a state of six-fold bodily and mental happiness as the result of ecstatic meditation" (Eitel); but a state which, when reached, makes the practitioner thereof absolute master of his six "principles", he now being merged in the seventh. It gives him full control, owing to his knowledge of SELF and Self, over his bodily, intellectual and mental states, which, unable any longer to interfere with, or act upon, his Higher Ego, leave it free to exist in its original, pure, and divine state. (2) Also the name of the devotee who practise Yoga.

KT Yogi or Yogin (Sans.) A devotee, one who practises the Yoga system. There are various grades and kinds of Yogis, and the term has now become in India a generic name to designate every kind of ascetic.

FY Yogis, mystics, who develop themselves according to the system of Patanjali's "Yoga Philosophy."

WG Yogi, (also Yogin), a follower of the yoga system, a contemplative saint; a magician.

OG Yogi -- (Yogin, Sanskrit) A yogi is a devotee, one who practices the Yoga system or one or more of its various subordinate branches.

In some cases, yogis are those who strive in various ways to conquer the body and physical temptations, for instance by torture of the body. They also study more or less some of the magnificent philosophical teachings of India coming down from far distant ages of the past; but mere mental study will not make a man a mahatma, nor will any torture of the body bring about the spiritual vision -- the vision sublime. (See also Yoga)

GH Yogi (nominative case: dictionary form or 'crude form': Yogin) A devotee: one who practises the Yoga-system. In ancient times such devotees practised the highest ethics without recourse to the prescribed religious observances and sacrifices: in modern times, however, the word is often applied to any devotee in India, whether practising Yoga or not. (Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 44)

SP Yogin -- a practitioner of yoga.

SD INDEX Yogi(n, s) (Skt). See also Yoga

arupa pitris were formerly II 94
beguiled by Indra II 614
Brahman-, claim to see highest I 426n
celestial, sacrifice for humanity II 246
Fire Angels, rebels are called II 243
great, fr Advaita School I 522
Hindu demons were often I 415
know subterranean passages II 221
may merge soul w Alaya I 48
Moon deity of mind w I 516
must control kundalini-sakti I 293
numerous powers of I 293
oppose clergy, ritual I 415
pranidhana fifth observance of II 88
rakshasas are II 165n
resist temptations II 614
Siva patron of II 282
some, die in personalities II 532
traditional grihastha becomes II 411n
uses ichchhasakti & kriyasakti I 292-3; II 173

SD INDEX Yogini (Skt) [female yogin], made into prostitute by Jennings I 472

SD INDEX Yojana(s) (Skt) [4-9 miles], Earth fifty crores of, in extent II 616n

SD INDEX Yom [Yom] (Heb) day

series of foundations I 346
six days of creation expl II 252n

TG Yong-Grub (Tib.). A state of absolute rest, the same as Paranirvana.

SD INDEX Yong-grub (Tib) parinishpanna, absolute bliss or I 42

TG Yoni (Sk.). The womb, the female principle.

SD INDEX Yoni(c) (Skt) womb II 465 &n, 548

cherubs on "Ark" form a II 460
degenerated symbol II 125, 588
Hindu, comp w rabbinical II 469
n'cabvah [neqebah] or II 467
numerical value of II 125
phallus & I 392
stone in Ark, linga & II 473-4
symbol of Holy of Holies I 264

SD INDEX Young, on sunspots I 541n

SD INDEX Young, Edward

----- Night Thoughts
angels superior men I 276
stars are religious houses I 578

SD INDEX Youssoufzic [Yusafzai] sons of Joseph Afghan tribe II 200n

SD INDEX Yttrium (rare earth)

complex of five or more parts I 625
fractionation of I 141n, 624

GH Yudhamanyu A warrior on the side of the Pandavas. (Meaning of the word itself: having a warlike spirit. Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 2)

TG Yudishthira (Sk.). One of the heroes of the Mahabharata. The eldest brother of the Pandavas, or the five Pandu princes who fought against their next of kin, the Kauravas, the sons of their maternal uncle. Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, was his younger brother. The Bhagavad Gita gives mystical particulars of this war. Kunti was the mother of the Pandavas, and Draupadi the wife in common of the five brothers -- an allegory. But Yudishthira is also, as well as Krishna, Arjuna, and so many other heroes, an historical character, who lived some 5,000 years ago, at the period when the Kali Yuga set in.

FY Yudhishthira, the eldest of the five brothers, called Pandavas, whose exploits are celebrated in the great Sanskrit epic "Mahabharata."

GH Yudhishthira The eldest son of Kunti and the god of justice, Dharma. In the Mahabharata Yudhishthira is not represented as a valorous warrior but is portrayed as excelling in the kingly virtues of justice and wise sovereignty over his kingdom of Indraprastha, which was given to him by Dhritarashtra and was adjacent to Hastinapura. Through the scheming of the Kauravas under Duryodhana, Yudhishthira lost his kingdom (as it was made the stake at a game of dice), and as the result of a second game he and his four brothers were compelled to exile themselves for 13 years. At the end of the period of exile Yudhishthira commenced negotiations for a peaceful restoration of his kingdom, in which Krishna assisted. He was unsuccessful and a conflict was imminent. Yudhishthira was dissuaded from withdrawing from the battle by Krishna, who assured him of victory. At the end of the war he was enthroned at Indraprastha, as well as at Hastinapura by Dhritarashtra, and his eminence was later assured through the performance of the Asvamedha sacrifice. After the death of Krishna, the Pandavas decided to abandon the world, and the closing book of the epic describes their journey and their death, one by one, except that of Yudhishthira. He descends into hell and then ascends to heaven (Svarga) but renounces it because his faithful dog was refused entrance with him; because of his compassion, he is readmitted, however, by his parent, the god Dharma. "Yudhishthira -- the first King of the Sacea, who opens the Kali Yuga era, which has to last 432,000 years -- 'an actual King and man who lived 3102 years B.C.,' applies also, name and all, to the great Deluge at the time of the first sinking of Atlantis. He is the 'Yudhishthira born on the mountain of the hundred peaks at the extremity of the world beyond which nobody can go' and 'immediately after the flood. (Secret Doctrine, I, pp. 369-70) Symbolically Yudhishthira represents the Higher Ego in man. (Meaning of the word itself: firm or steady in battle. Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 4)

SD INDEX Yudhishthira (Skt) I 369-70

SD INDEX Yu, Emperor

initiate, mystic I 271n
knowledge fr "snowy range" I 271n
nine urns of II 54n
Shan-Hai-King & II 302

TG Yuga (Sk.). A 1,000th part of a Kalpa. An age of the World of which there are four, and the series of which proceed in succession during the manvantaric cycle. Each Yuga is preceded by a period called in the Puranas Sandhya, twilight, or transition period, and is followed by another period of like duration called Sandhyansa, "portion of twilight". Each is equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The group of four Yugas is first computed by the divine years, or "years of the gods" -- each such year being equal to 360 years of mortal men. Thus we have, in "divine" years:

1. Krita or Satya Yuga 4,000
.......................Sandhya 400
..................Sandhyansa 400
--------------------------- 4,800

2. Treta Yuga 3,000
..........Sandhya 300
.....Sandhyansa 300
---------------- 3,600

3. Dwapara Yuga 2,000
................Sandhya 200
...........Sandhyansa 200
--------------------- 2,400

4. Kali Yuga 1,000
.........Sandhya 100
....Sandhyansa 100
--------------- 1,200

Total 12,000

This rendered in years of mortals equals:

4800 x 360 = 1,728,000
3600 x 360 = 1,296,000
2400 x 360 = 864,000
1200 x 360 = 432,000
Total 4,320,000

The above is called a Mahayuga or Manvantara. 2,000 such Maha-Yugas, or a period of 8,640,000,000 years, make a Kalpa: the latter being only a "day and a night", or twenty-four hours, of Brahma. Thus an "age of Brahma", or one hundred of his divine years, must equal 311,040,000,000,000 of our mortal years. The old Mazdeans or Magi (the modern Parsis) had the same calculation, though the Orientalists do not seem to perceive it, for even the Parsi Mobeds themselves have forgotten it. But their "Sovereign Time of the Long Period" (Zervan Daregho Hvadata) lasts 12,000 years, and these are the 12,000 divine years of a Mahayuga as shown above, whereas the Zervan Akarana (Limitless Time), mentioned by Zarathustra, is the Kala, out of space and time, of Parabrahm.

KT Yuga (Sans.) An age of the world of which there are four, which follow each other in a series, namely, Krita (or Satya) Yuga, the golden age; Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga, and finally Kali Yuga, the black age -- in which we now are. (See Secret Doctrine for a full description.)

WG Yuga, an age; a cycle. There are four ages of the world, the durations of which constitute together a maha-yuga, or great age. They are thus set forth in Brahmanical computations: Krita-yuga contains 1,728,000 solar years; treta-yuga, 1,296,000; dvapara-yuga, 864,000; kali-yuga, 432,000. These four make one maha-yuga, of 4,320,000 years, and 71 such maha-yugas form the period of the reign of one Manu, containing 306,720,000 years. The reigns of 14 Manus (embracing the duration of 994 maha-yugas) equal 4,294,080,000 years; and, adding to these the sandhis (twilights), equal to 6 maha-yugas, or 25,920,000 years, the total of these reigns and interregnums of 14 Manus is 1,000 maha-yugas, which constitute a kalpa, or "day of Brahma," amounting to 4,320,000,000 solar years. As Brahma's "night" is of equal duration, one day and night of Brahma would contain 8,640,000,000 solar years; and 360 such days and nights make a year of Brahma, containing 3,110,400, 000, 000 solar years; while 100 such years of Brahma constitute the whole period of Brahma's age, comprising 311,040,000,000,000 years of mortals. Among lesser yugas is an astronomical cycle of five years. (yuga, a yoke, a yoking [of human beings], and so, human generation, a generation of men, an age of the world. The four yugas have received their names from the marks on dice, the best mark being four points and the worst one: krita is the side of a die marked with four points; treta, the side having three spots; dvapara, two spots; and kali, one spot.)

OG Yuga -- (Sanskrit) A word meaning an "age," a period of time. A yuga is a period of mundane time, and four of these periods are usually enumerated in "divine years":

1. Krita or Satya Yuga. . . . 4,000
Sandhya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Sandhyamsa. . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,800

2. Treta Yuga. . . . . . . . . . . 3,000
Sandhya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Sandhyamsa. . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,600

3. Dvapara Yuga. . . . . . . . 2,000
Sandhya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Sandhyamsa. . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,400

4. Kali Yuga. . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000
Sandhya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Sandhyamsa. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,200

TOTAL . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .12,000

This rendered in years of mortals equals:

4,800 x 360 = 1,728,000
3,600 x 360 = 1,296,000
2,400 x 360 = 1,864,000
1,200 x 360 = 1,432,000
. . . . . .Total 4,320,000

Of these four yugas, our present racial period is the fourth or kali yuga, often called the "iron age" or the "black age." It is stated to have commenced at the moment of Krishna's death, usually given as 3,102 years before the Christian era. There is a very important point of the teaching in connection with the yugas which must not be forgotten. It is the following: The four yugas as above outlined refer to what modern theosophical philosophy calls a root-race, although indeed a root-race from its individual beginning to its individual ending is about double the length of the composite yuga above set forth in columnar form. The racial yugas, however, overlap because each new great race is born at about the middle period of the parent race, although the individual length of any one race is as above stated. Thus it is that by the overlapping of the races, a race and its succeeding race may for a long time be contemporaneous on the face of the globe.

As the four yugas are a reflection in human history of what takes place in the evolution of the earth itself and of the planetary chain, therefore the same scheme of yugas applies also on a cosmic scale -- there exist the four series of satya yuga, treta yuga, dvapara yuga, and kali yuga, in the evolution of the earth, and on a still larger scale in the evolution of a planetary chain. Of course these cosmic yugas are very much longer than the racial yugas, but the same general scheme of 4, 3, 2 applies throughout. For further details of the teaching concerning the yugas, the student should consult H. P. Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine, and the work by the present author, Fundamentals of the Esoteric Philosophy.

GH Yuga An age or period, referring especially to an age of the world, of which there are four enumerated in Hindu chronology as follows: (1) Krita-yuga or Satya-yuga, fit. 'golden age' -- the age of purity and innocence when virtue reigns and there is no injustice in the world, lasting for a period of 4,000 years of the gods; (2) Treta-yuga, 'age of triads,' or the 'age of the three sacred fires,' i.e., three of the four sacred fires being worshiped -- the Silver Age, lasting for 3,000 years of the gods; (3) Dvaparayuga, 'age of the number two,' -- all sacred things are halved, the Bronze Age, of 2,000 years of the gods; (4) Kali-yuga, age of darkness, or the Black Age, when strife prevails, the Iron Age, whose duration is 1,000 years of the gods. Each yuga is preceded by a period called a Sandhya (twilight -- or a transition period, or dawn), which is followed by a period named Sandhyansa ('a portion of a twilight'): each of these two periods is equivalent in length to a tenth of its accompanying year of the gods. As a year of the gods is figured as 360 days of the mortals, and adding the Sandhyas and Sandhyansas, the yugas are:

Krita-yuga 1,728,000 years
Treta-yuga 1,296,000 years
Dvapara-yuga 864,000 years
Kali-yuga 432,000 years

The total of the 4 yugas is equivalent to 1 Maha-yuga -- 4,320,000 years.

The reference (in Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 61) to the Day of Brahma as equivalent to a thousand revolutions of the yugas, has reference to Mahayugas, i.e., the total of the reigns of 14 Manus (each with its accompanying Sandhyas and Sandhyansas) totaling 4,320,000,000 years, or a 'Day of Brahma.' Brahma's Night is of equivalent length.

In the Mahabharata the symbol of the four yugas is a bull: during the Krita-yuga the bull stands firm on his four feet and justice prevails; in the Treta-yuga, the bull has three legs, three-fourths of justice is administered; in the Dvapara-yuga, the bull is supported by only two legs, justice only half rules the world; but in Kali-yuga, with only one leg left for the bull, only a quarter of justice is present and injustice is rampant. The life of man during the yugas is decreased by 100 years, in the series 4, 3, 2 -- commencing with 400 years for the Krita-yuga.

"In the Hindu Yuga Kalpa, we have the regular descending series 4, 3, 2, with ciphers multiplied as occasion requires for esoteric purposes, . . ." (Secret Doctrine, II, p. 307)

"All races have their own cycles, which fact causes a great difference. For instance, the Fourth Sub-Race of the Atlanteans was in its Kali-Yug, when destroyed, whereas the Fifth was in its Satya or Krita Yuga. The Aryan Race is now in its Kali Yuga, and will continue to be in it for 427,000 years longer," (Secret Doctrine, II, p. 147). (Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 61)

SKo Yuga, Maha-yuga, Satya-yuga, Krita-yuga, Treta-yuga, Dwapara-yuga, Kali-yuga A Yuga is a specific 'Age' or period of time; derived from the verb-root yuj -- to unite. The evolutionary periods through which each of the Seven Great Root-Races of our earth passes are known as the Yugas: Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga, Dwapara-yuga, and Kali-yuga. The duration of each is respectively 1,728,000, 1,296,000, 864,000, 432,000 human years, a ratio of 4, 3, 2, 1. This ratio is found to prevail in many sacred computations. The four Yugas together make 4,320,000 earth-years or what is called a Maha-Yuga or Great Age.

The four Yugas play an important part in the qualitative aspect of the development of every Root-Race. But the yuga-periods in connexion with the Root-Race tell but part of the chronological story. The Root-Races preceding our own were all of greater length than the one Maha-yuga for each. The Kali-yuga, which is the last and fourth of the cycles, is but the mid-point of a Race. It is at this point that the Race undergoes certain cyclic catastrophes; nevertheless it keeps lasting on for another four cycles while the new Race is growing up, born from the middle of the preceding one, as Dr. de Purucker writes in the Occult Glossary:". . . a Root-Race from its individual beginning to its individual ending is about double the length of the composite yuga. . . . These succeeding Yugas or series of development are but a reflexion in human Racial history of what takes place on a greater scale in the evolution of a Globe or of a planet.

The Satya-yuga, also called Krita-yuga, is the age of innocence, of innate goodness, the age when Dharma or Truth prevails. Satya means 'truth,' and Krita is often rendered as 'perfect,' 'well-done,' being the past participle of the verb-root kri -- to do. The Treta-yuga is the age of only three-fourths of the truth, from treta meaning 'three.' The material forces then begin to exert their opposing influence. The Dwapara-yuga is the age of two parts or one-half of the truth, from dwapara meaning 'twofold.' Material darkness increases and brings about a decline of spiritual powers. The Kali-yuga, or the Dark-Age, is the Yuga in which only one part of the Truth prevails, because materiality and ignorance with their evil relations of selfishness and anger and indifference hold sway over men's hearts. We are now in the Kali-yuga of our present Fifth Root-Race. This Dark Age commenced at the death of Krishna at midnight between February 17th and 18th in the year 3102 B.C.

SP Yuga -- an age. A maha-yuga or "great age" consists of four ages, named for the four possible throws in the ancient Indian dice game:

krta-yuga [krita-] or satya-yuga -- the golden age
treta-yuga -- the silver age
dvapara-yuga [dwapara-] -- the bronze age
kali-yuga -- iron or dark age, our present period.

SD INDEX Yuga(s) (Skt) cycles II 198. See also Dvapara-Yuga, Kali-Yuga, Satya-Yuga, Treta-Yuga

bearing on human life I 637
Brahma opens, by creating II 58
doctrine of I 655-6
double & triple meanings of II 147n, 307n, 308n
dwarfed by Dr Sepp, Suidas II 619-20
four, in Jambu-dvipa II 322
-kalpas descend by 4, 3, 2 II 307n
length of various II 69-70, 147 &n
no figures more meddled w II 73
three, during third race II 520n
total of, is maha-yuga II 308n
various lengths of, (Colebrooke) II 624n


TG Yurbo Adonai. A contemptuous epithet given by the followers of the Nazarene Codex, the St. John Gnostics, to the Jehovah of the Jews.

SD INDEX Yurbo-adonai (Jurbo in tx)

Jehovah in Codex Nazaraeus I 463
various names for I 463

TG Yurmungander (Scand.). A name of the Midgard snake in the Edda, whose brother is Wolf Fenris, and whose sister is the horrible monster Hel -- the three children of wicked Loki and Angurboda (carrier of anguish), a dreaded giantess. The mundane snake of the Norsemen, the monster created by Loki but fashioned by the constant putrid emanations from the body of the slain giant Ymir (the matter of our globe), and producing in its turn a constant emanation, which serves as a veil between heaven and earth, i.e., the Astral Light.

GH Yuyudhana One of the names of Satyaki. A kinsman of Krishna, for whom he acted as charioteer, fighting on the side of the Pandavas. (Meaning of the word itself: warlike. Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge, p. 2)

SD INDEX Yuyuje (Skt) yoga-like II 58